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Research Degrees

What does a research degree involve?

The MLitt (Master of Letters) and DPhil (Doctor of Philosophy) are research degrees for which the candidate writes a thesis and is examined by a viva voce (oral) examination. Candidates work under the guidance of a supervisor who is a specialist in their subject. Where two areas of expertise are essential, joint supervision is arranged.

The two degrees differ in:

  • the length of the thesis (MLitt – 50,000 words, DPhil – 80,000 words)
  • the rigour of the requirements

The thesis word-count includes notes, glossary, appendices, etc., but excludes the bibliography.

Entry requirements

All candidates for research degrees are initially registered as Probationary Research Students (PRS). Unless they already have a Master’s degree, they are normally required previously to have taken the MSt in Medieval and Modern Languages or an equivalent first-year course.

The MLitt thesis

The examiners of an MLitt thesis have to certify that:

  • the candidate possesses a good general knowledge of the field of learning within which the subject of the thesis falls
  • the candidate shows competence in investigating the chosen topic
  • the candidate has made a worthwhile contribution to knowledge or understanding in the field of learning within which the subject of the thesis falls
  • results have been presented in a lucid and scholarly manner

The DPhil thesis

The examiners of a DPhil thesis have to certify that:

  • the candidate possesses a good general knowledge of the field of learning within which the subject of the thesis falls
  • the candidate has made a significant and substantial contribution in the field of learning within which the subject of the thesis falls
  • the results have been presented in a lucid and scholarly manner

The DPhil demands a more detailed knowledge of the field of study. While an MLitt candidate need only show competence in investigating the topic, the DPhil candidate is required to make a significant and substantial contribution to the subject studied. In Modern Languages this may involve work on unpublished documents or manuscripts in foreign libraries or archives. A thesis may also be an edition of a text, if the task is complex enough and the introductory material sufficiently detailed. An MLitt candidate may gain the degree by reassessing published material.

“I’m now in the final year of my DPhil on 1970’s Russian literature. I started as an MPhil student in 2004 […] I chose Oxford because of the flexibility of the two-year MPhil in European Litearture [now Modern Languages], with its mixture of taught elements and research. The essay portfolios in the first year helped devise my own questions and approaches, while the thesis in the second year was the ideal way to find out whether research was for me in the long term. It worked…”

Final year DPhil student

Thesis Language

MLitt and DPhil theses are normally written in English, but may be written in an appropriate language other than English. Permission to write in a language other than English should be sought from the Director of Graduate Studies, well in advance of the submission of the thesis. Similarly, the viva voce examination is normally conducted in English, though in exceptional circumstances permission may be given by the Academic Policy Committee for it to be held in the relevant foreign language.

Progression

Candidates for a research degree are initially admitted to Probationary Research Student (PRS) status, and must apply for admission to full MLitt or DPhil status by the third term in PRS status. You must submit a research proposal and a piece of written work, about 10,000 words long, which should be either a chapter of your thesis or an essay related to it. These will be read by two assessors who will then meet you to discuss them. They may recommend your immediate admission to DPhil status or may ask you to submit revised materials so that your application may be reconsidered later.

A further formal assessment of your progress takes place when you apply for confirmation of your DPhil status. This must be done by the sixth term after your admission to PRS status. Again, two assessors will read a draft chapter of your thesis and discuss it with you.

The intention behind these requirements is not to place obstacles in your way but to let you discuss your work with scholars other than your supervisor and benefit from other perspectives on your work.

Duration of study

The MLitt and DPhil each require a minimum of two years’ study. For the MLitt, no further fees are payable where a student takes longer than two years to complete the thesis. Students for the DPhil pay a maximum of three years’ fees. Graduates should take care, in consultation with their supervisors, to avoid unrealistically ambitious topics and to choose topics that can be completed within three or at most four years of full-time research. Where there are exceptional reasons for delay in completing the thesis, limited extensions of time may be granted on application to the Director of Graduate Studies.

Graduate Taught Courses

MSt/MPhil in Modern Languages

  • Wide choice of languages
  • Inter-disciplinary programmes – Comparative Literature, Cultural Studies, European Enlightenment, Medieval Studies
  • Flexible, tailored programmes

MSt/MPhil in Celtic Studies

  • Wide range of subjects – Archaeology, Art, History, Law, Language and Literature
  • Celtic history from antiquity to the present day

MSt/MPhil in Slavonic Studies

  • Wide range of Slavonic languages including Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Polish, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, Sorbian and Ukrainian
  • Covers subjects such as the language, history, thought and current state of slavonic languages

MSt in Yiddish Studies

  • Linguistic, historical and socio-cultural make-up of pre-modern Ashkenazic (Yiddish-speaking) society
  • Subjects include major trends of modern Yiddish language, literature, and culture

MSt in Film Aesthetics

  • Film criticism, detailed film analysis, film theory, and film-philosophy
  • Teaches the history and the contemporary developments in the scholarly literature of these subjects

MSt in Women’s Studies

  • Interdisciplinary course spanning five faculties: Classics, English, Modern History, Medieval and Modern Languages and Philosophy
  • Wde range of theoretical issues raised by women’s studies

MSt in Medieval Studies

  • Interdisciplinary training for medievalists in the fields of art history, history, languages and literature, oriental studies, philosophy, and theology

Comparative Literature Programme

The programme allows you to study two or more literatures comparatively, either by choosing a comparative special subject or subjects in different languages. The languages are:

Celtic | English* | French | German | Byzantine & Modern Greek | Italian | Portuguese | Russian | Spanish

* Courses that may be taken in the Faculty of English are normally those shown under List C (Special Options) in the course handbook. Participation is restricted and by prior approval.

In 1827, Goethe stated provocatively that ‘National literature has become rather meaningless. The time has come for world literature.’ This view may seem particularly pertinent today, in an age of globalisation. Yet there is little sign that literature is becoming homogenised. Our limited linguistic competence and our specific cultural identities entail that we are generally most familiar with the literature of our own culture, and that other literatures are ‘foreign’. The historical events and developments that help to shape literature will differ between nations, and each literature has its own major authors and texts acting as models to be emulated or refuted. This does not mean that literature is constrained by national or cultural boundaries. Writers and readers move between literatures and bring them into play with each other, and the classical canon has given the European vernacular literatures a common basis. Translation and adaptation provide modes of creative transfer, and literature has always thrived on diversity of cultures and places. By studying literature comparatively, you will develop an enhanced awareness of the complexity of literary communication and develop your cultural imagination.

A degree-level knowledge of at least one European language plus English is a requirement for admission to this programme.

 

Course components
  • Comparative Criticism
    This course is taught in a series of lectures and seminars extending over the first two terms of the academic year. It brings together teaching staff and graduates with expertise in different literatures and disciplines from across the Humanities. Topics include National Literature – World Literature; Intermediality and Performance; The Ancients and the Moderns – the Role of the Canon; Translation, Adaptation, Version; Place and Displacement. The lectures will be given in the form of introductory conversations by leading researchers in the field. The seminars will focus on presentations by the participants, providing an opportunity to discuss the theoretical and methodological questions that will be central to your graduate work.
  • Two Special Subjects selected from a wide range of comparative and/or language-specific Special Subjects will allow you to pursue your specific subject interests in depth. Special Subjects are taught in the first two terms.
  • A Dissertation on a comparative topic
    This gives you the opportunity to carry out a piece of independent comparative research with guidance from one or two supervisors. You will define your topic in the course of the second term and complete your Dissertation in the third term.

Alfred Nobel

Born: October 21, 1833
Place of birth: Stockholm, Sweden
Died: December 10, 1896
Place of death: Sanremo, Italy
Occupation: Chemist, Engineer, Innovator, Armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite.
Nationality: Sweden

Biography:

Alfred Nobel was one of four sons of Immanuel Nobel (1801 – 1872) and Andriette Nobel, born Ahlsell. He and his brothers Robert, Louis and Emil lived in difficult conditions with a very sick father. He and his Brothers Robert, Louis and Emil lived in difficult conditions with a very sick father. Emil Nobel died in fact 21 years old in an explosion in the family’s explosives factory in Stockholm. Emil Nobel died in fact 21 years old in an explosion in the family’s explosives factory in Stockholm. In 1842 the family moved to St Petersburg after his father’s mechanics shop went bankrupt in Sweden. In 1842 the family moved to St. Petersburg after his father’s mechanics shop went bankrupt in Canada. At that time the family was very poor and the wife was working as a shop assistant in a milk and vegetable shop, while Alfred himself helped to sell matches on the street. At that time the family was very poor and the wife was working as a shop assistant in a milk and vegetable shop, while Alfred himself helped to sell matches on the street. But the family’s company managed to build up to an industrial giant, which flourished and was composed until the Russian Revolution made inroads. But the family’s company managed Thursday the build up to an industrial giant, which flourished and was composed until the Russian Revolution made inroads.

In 1863 returned the father and Alfred to Sweden, where Alfred began to study the explosives, especially nitroglycerin. Nobel had met with his discovery of nitroglycerine, Ascanio Sobrero, during his time in Paris and realized that the force must be harnessed to be useful. Nobel had met with his discovery of nitroglycerine, Ascanio Sobrero, during his time in Paris and Realized that the force must be harnessed to be useful. Alfred Nobel invented, among other things: Alfred Nobel INVENTED, among other things:

* Dynamite 1866, he received the patent in 1867 Dynamite 1866, he received the patent in 1867
* Firing Rubber (cotton powder dissolved in black), almost risk-free for transporting and handling firing Rubber (cotton powder dissolved in black), almost risk free for the transport and action
* Firing Gelatin 1875 Blasting Gelatine 1875
* Ballistit, noble gunpowder in 1887 (one was vague gunpowder, composed of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin in equal parts) Ballistit, noble Gunpowder in 1887 (one was vague Gunpowder, composed of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin in equal parts)

Dynamite meant great opportunities to transport explosive materials with high security. Although nitroglycerin, which is the active component of dynamite, are very shock sensitive, making the so-called flegmatiseringen that dynamite does not detonate, despite fairly tough lists. Although nitroglycerin, which is the active component of dynamite, are very shock sensitive, making the so-called flegmatiseringen that Dynamite does not detonator, Despite fairly tough lists. Exceptions are on the dynamite is frozen, then it still may detonate if subjected to shocks. Exceptions are on the Dynamite is frozen, then it still may detonator if subjected Thursday shocks. When blasting in cold weather must be dynamite kept warm by, for example, stored in hot water. When Blasting in cold weather must be kept warm by Dynamite, for example, stored in hot water. In this regard is to be noted that pure nitroglycerin turns into a solid form at 13 ° C. In this regard is to be noted that pure nitroglycerin turns into a solid form at 13 ° C. Dynamit doing anything anymore, when the temperature drops, but at some plus degrees will be dynamite shock sensitive. Dynamite can do anything anymore, when the temperature drops, but at some plus degrees will be Dynamite shock sensitive. Many burst accidents have been due to the failure to realize the risks even in the plus degrees. Many burst accidents have been due to the Failure to Realize the risks even in the plus degrees. A characteristic feature of dynamite is that the “fight short duration,” unlike some other explosives, as “wrestling sustainable”. A characteristic feature of Dynamite is that the “fight short duration,” Unlike some other explosives, as “wrestling sustainable”.

When traditional black powder used to run the projectiles in firearms, it will be a significant GUST, as obstruction of great service, and reveal the enemy from where the fire is based. When traditional black powder used to run the projectiles in fire arms, it will be a significant GUST, as obstruction of great service, and Reveal the enemy from where the fire is based. Anyone who can shoot with less smoke, providing them an advantage. Anyone who can shoot with less smoke, providing them an advantage. Nobel worked with the potential to have a smoke vague gunpowder and did so valuable findings that resulted in ballistit patent. Nobel worked with the potential Thursday have a smoke vague Gunpowder and did so valuable findings that resulted in ballistit patent.

Alfred Nobel’s application from 1864, the existing patent on the firing cap and the principle for the initial ignition of nitroglycerin. Alfred Nobel’s application from 1864, the existing patent on the firing cap and the principle for the initial ignition of nitroglycerin.

Nobel was granted a very large number of patents, and several of them involving other countries or the whole world, totaling more than 350 patents. Nobel was granted a very large number of patents, and several of them involving other countries or the whole world, totaling more than 350 patents. These included more than explosives in various forms. These included more than explosives in various forms. Inspired by a severe explosion caused by gaslight in a theater in Paris, he invented such as a gas burner with significantly improved security. Inspired by a severe explosion caused by gaslight in a theater in Paris, he INVENTED such as a gas burner with significantly improved security. A technical detail in this burner was that it worked with preheating the combustion air. A technical detail in this burner was that it worked with preheating the combustion air.

In order to exploit their inventions Alfred Nobel built a variety of factories around the world. In order to exploit their inventions Alfred Nobel built a variety of factories around the world. He is also interested to industries in other sectors. He is also interested Thursday industries in other sectors.

His brothers Robert and Ludvig had begun extracting oil in Baku in Azerbaijan 1874. His Brothers Robert and Ludvig had begun extracting oil in Baku in Azerbaijan 1874. Four years later they formed, with Alfred as one of the financiers, the oil company Tovaristjestvo Neftjanovo Proizvodstva Bratjev Nobel (NAFTA Production Society of Nobel brothers), which soon became abbreviated to Branobel. Four years later they formed, with Alfred as one of the Financial, the oil company Tovaristjestvo Neftjanovo Proizvodstva Bratjev Nobel (NAFTA Production Society of the Nobel Brothers), which soon became Abbreviated Thursday Branobel. The company became in a short time the world’s second largest oil company, after the Rockefeller Standard Oil, and dominated the European market until the Russian Revolution. The company became in a short time the world’s second largest oil company, after the Rockefeller Standard Oil, and dominated the European market until the Russian Revolution. During the company’s greatness, it had several hundred offices spread across Ukraine and Eastern Europe from Poland and the Baltics up to the east of the Urals. During the company’s Greatness, it had several hundred offices spread across Ukraine and Eastern Europe from Poland and the Baltics up to the east of the Urals. 1918 was nationalized plants, and thus ended the brothers Nobel’s influence in these industries. 1918 was nationalized plants, and thus ended the Brothers Nobel’s influence in these industries. About 12 percent of sustainability wills were fortune consisted of shares in oil company. About 12 percent of sustainability wills were fortune consisted of shares in oil company.

With all these commitments came to a variety of technical and economic problems must be solved, and this led to Alfred Nobel was a long time on the road in a wide range of countries. With all these commitments came to a variety of technical and economic problems must be solved, and this Led to Alfred Nobel was a long time on the road in a wide range of countries. This gave him the label ‘Europe’s richest vagabond “. This gave him the label “Europe’s Richest runabout.” He had also studied in five languages in five different countries and therefore could speak five languages fluently. He had also studied in five languages in five different countries and therefore could speak five languages fluently.

He worked as a chemist in several foreign laboratories, including the professor Peluse in Paris. He worked as a Chemist in several foreign laboratories, including the professor Peluse in Paris. Where he received good opportunity to study nitroglycerin and other explosives. Where he received good opportunity to study nitroglycerin and other explosives. Because of the many accidents which occurred in both the manufacturing and the transport of nitroglycerin, became both the production and use of explosives banned in several countries. Because of the many accidents which occurred in both the manufacturing and the transport of nitroglycerin, became both the production and use of explosives banned in several countries. The great need for a stronger explosive than gunpowder inspired, along with his father’s intense interest in this production, the Nobel with great energy trying to come at a more manageable and less dangerous form of nitroglycerin. The great need for a Stronger explosive than Gunpowder Inspired, along with his father’s intense interest in this production, the Nobel with great energy trying to come at a more manageable and less dangerous form of nitroglycerin. A serious accident in his father’s laboratory at Helen Borg not deterred him. A serious accident in his father’s laboratory at Helen Borg not deterred him. In short, he managed to get access to capital for the construction of a factory at the Winter Bay, near Stockholm, and one at Krümmel, near Hamburg. In short, he managed to get access to capital for the construction of a factory at the Winter Bay, near Stockholm, and one at Krümmel, near Hamburg.

It was during a stay at the factory in Krümmel that in 1866 he made his first invention, dynamite. It was during a stay at the factory in Krümmel that in 1866 he made his first invention, dynamite. He availed of attentive local assets: Lüneburgheden, where Lauenburg is located, is a powerful sandhed with underlying layers of diluviansk diatomaceous earth. He availed of attentive local assets: Lüneburgheden, where Lauenburg is located, is a powerful sandhed with underlying layers of diluviansk diatomaceous earth. Dynamite consisted precisely of diatomaceous earth, which pressured with nitroglycerin. Dynamite Precisely consisted of diatomaceous earth, which pressured with nitroglycerin.

An example showing how this epoch-making invention was is that the firing of the Gotthard tunnel under a task save 20 million francs (unclear if French or Swiss francs), and won several years, compared with the calculated. An example showing how this Epoch-making invention was is that the firing of the Gotthard tunnel during a task SAVE 20 million francs (unclear if French or Swiss francs), and won several years, compared with the calculated.

Alfred Nobel never married. Alfred Nobel never married. In 1876 he announced in a Vienna newspaper “A very rich, highly educated elderly gentleman who lives in Paris, seeking a LINGUIST lady, also at the staid age, as secretary and household föreståndarinna”, and a young NOBLEWOMAN, Countess Bertha Kinsky employee . In 1876 he announced in a Vienna newspaper “A very rich, highly educated elderly gentleman who lives in Paris, seeking a LINGUIST lady, also at the staid age, as secretary and household föreståndarinna”, and a Young Noble woman, Countess Bertha Kinsky employee. Alfred and Kinsky developed a deep friendship, which was composed long after she left her job of Alfred Nobel and married another man. Alfred and Kinsky developed a deep friendship, which was composed long after she left her job of Alfred Nobel and married another man. Bertha Kinsky was very much involved in peace issues and was one of dåtidens biggest names in the peace movement. Bertha Kinsky was very much involved in peace issues and was one of dåtidens biggest names in the peace movement. Alfred Nobel was strongly influenced by her views, and they are the basis for the establishment of the peace prize. Bertha von Suttner, she came to be called after the marriage, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1905. Alfred Nobel was strongly influenced by her views, and they are the basis for the establishment of the peace prize. Bertha von Suttner, she came to be called after the marriage, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1905.

Nobel built factories in most European countries and in North America to take advantage of their inventions. Nobel built factories in most European countries and in North America to take advantage of their inventions. He also had interests in several other companies, such as Branobel in Baku, Azerbaijan and FORGE Bofors in Karlskoga, where he had a big experiment workshop, among other things, to develop a powder with little smoke. He also had interests in several other companies, such as Branobel in Baku, Azerbaijan and Bofors FORGES in Karlskoga, where he had a big experiment workshop, among other things, to develop a powder with little smoke. He was also a pattern in which the plant for the manufacture of guns. He was also a pattern in which the plant for the manufacture of guns.
Birch Manor Born, Karlskoga. Birch Manor Born, Karlskoga.

At the end of the year 1893/1894 Alfred took over a large equity stake in Bofors, Karlskoga, a million dollars. At the end of the year 1893/1894 Alfred took over a large equity stake in Bofors, Karlskoga, a million dollars. Shortly thereafter he became the sole owner of the factory and ancillary industries. Shortly thereafter he became the sole owner of the factory and ancillary industries. The years 1894 to 1896 Nobel lived in Birch Manor Born in Karlskoga, where he worked with his newly acquired weapons factory. The years 1894 Thursday, 1896 Nobel lived in Birch Manor Born in Karlskoga, where he worked with his newly acquired weapons factory. In 1896 he moved his vast scientific-technological laboratory from Paris to his villa in San Remo in Genoa and he lived there until her death. In 1896 he moved his vast scientific-technological laboratory from Paris Thursday his villa in San Remo in Genoa and he lived there until her death.

A conflict between Sweden and France arose when the Nobel Prize will be prosecuted. A conflict between Canada and France arose when the Nobel Prize will be prosecuted. Since the Nobel died at his home in Paris considered the French state to France should be regarded as his homeland. Since the Nobel died at his home in Paris considered the French state to France should be regarded as his home country. But a French court agreed that “where a man has his horses in which he himself feels that he has his home” and Alfred Nobel had their Russian stallions at Birch Born mansion. But a French court agreed that “where a man has his horses in which he himself feels that he has his home” and Alfred Nobel had their Russian stole lions at Birch Born Mansion. Testament tried in Karlskoga Hundred law and the establishment of the Nobel Prize became a reality. Testament tried in Karlskoga Hundred law and the establishment of the Nobel Prize became a reality.

Nobel wrote the play Nemesis, which was published only after his death. Nathan Söderblom, later Archbishop, shocked over the firework content and saw that the whole edition destroyed. Nobel wrote the play Nemesis, which was published only after his death. Nathan Söderblom, later archbishop, shocked over the fire work content and saw that the whole edition destroyed. A few copies left out, but was recovered in the early 1900s. A few copies left out, but was recovered in the early 1900s.

His TOMB can be found at the North cemetery in Stockholm. His Tomb can be found at the North cemetery in Stockholm.

History of Swedish Academy’s Nobel Library

Nobel Library is an instrument of the Swedish Academy’s prize work. It was founded in 1901 in connection with the Academy’s newly established Nobel Institute. Its primary function was to provide the Nobel Committee and the Institute’s employees all NECESSARY literature in the work of the literary Nobel Prize. The library’s task is ultimately originates in the will of Alfred Nobel, in which “the Academy in Stockholm” is required to reward “those in the literature has produced the most outstanding work in an ideal direction”.

The Nobel Institute would thus entail a larger library of accounts by the serial works of world literature. The mission of planning went into the library literature professor Karl Warburg.

In November 1900 informed Warburg Academy that he had found one for library purposes appropriate at Railway Square, located in the by Ferdinand Boberg plotted so-called Vasaborgen. It had a “free, cheerful location: spacious rooms, rich natural light for both the reading room as book talks, fully solid building, mighty to bear which weights at any time”. The premises were calculated to accommodate about 65 000 volumes, being an “excellent reading room” sense of onto a terrace with plantings, a few office and a caretaker residence.

Warburg counted on having to purchase literature from around thirty languages. He had therefore contacted most of the major publishers and booksellers across Europe. Many books were bought in Paris, Avignon, Barcelona, ​​London, Rome, Poznan, Zagreb, Belgrade, Prague, Budapest, Copenhagen ….

I would significantly Nobel Library for their coverage can also be a journal library containing “such a rich collection as possible of critical, literary and linguistic journals of relevance”.

Nobel Library was opened November 16, 1901. In addition to serving members of the Academy and Nobelintitutets officials would also, if resources, “provide other scientists and scholars and writers the opportunity to study foreign literature”. Gradually, was also an “educated public” access.

Five years after the library’s creation was mere fiction book collection has grown to almost 15 000 volumes, and after two decades had been the library had outgrown the premises at the Railway Square. In October 1921 Nobel Library was able to move into its current premises in the Stock Exchange building in Old Town.